The reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, judgments, applying logic, and adapting or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information. It is closely associated with such characteristically human activities as philosophy, science, language, mathematics, and art, and is normally considered to be a distinguishing ability possessed by humans.

The reasoning is a process of thinking during which the individual is aware of a problem identifies, evaluates, and decides upon a solution; it is associated with thinking, cognition, and intellect. The field of logic studies ways in which humans reason formally through argument.