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Quantitative reasoning

Quantitative reasoning (QR) is defined as the habit of mind to apply data and quantitative tools to a wide range of problems in personal, professional, and public contexts. The ability to think quantitatively clearly plays a central role in undergraduate education. By one definition, quantitative reasoning (QR) is the application of basic mathematics skills, such


Empiricism (from Latin empiricus, der. from the Greek ἐμπειρία, empeirìa, ‘experience’), is the philosophical movement, born in the second half of the seventeenth century in England, according to which human knowledge derives exclusively from the senses or from experience. See also: Empiricism vs Sensationalism vs Materialism It opposes ‘innatism’ and ‘rationalism’, which derive knowledge by deduction from rational principles evident a priori,


Locke’s lesson was a lesson in critical caution, and in this sense, his philosophy was interpreted by the Enlightenment. «After so much unfortunate wandering – wrote Voltaire – tired, exhausted and shameful of having sought so many truths and found so many chimeras, I returned, like the prodigal son to his father, to Locke; and


Idealism, in philosophy, is a vision of the world that leads back totally the being to the thought, denying autonomous existence to the reality, considered the reflection of an internal activity to the subject. German idealism Referring back to Kant, J.G. Fichte affirms the superiority of value over fact, of having to be over being:


Philosophy and science in positivism For A. Comte philosophy is, first of all, a reflection on knowledge and thus an analysis of the tendencies and techniques of the various sciences, classified according to an order of decreasing generality; not only that but at times some of their criteria are prescribed to be followed, as those

Modern philosophy

In Francis Bacon, we find, as in the whole Renaissance, the ideal of the regnum hominis, of the rational domination of nature, which is the purpose of knowledge and also of the practical organization of knowledge. Bacon offers an encyclopedia of the different forms of knowledge, an organic arrangement of the different sciences. We have

Tibetan philosophy

Tibetan philosophy developed from the texts and assumptions of Indian Buddhism and almost exclusively in the Buddhist sphere, offering interesting solutions and developments to the Madhyamaka, Pramāṇavāda and, to a lesser extent, Yogācāra currents. Some key concepts used by contemporary interpreters of Indian and Buddhist philosophy, such as the distinction between a *svātantrika and a

Christian philosophy

Christian philosophy is also interwoven with religious and theological themes: it can’t indeed separate itself from the so-called “revealed truths,” and therefore from the faith, and it has its true subject in God, within whom exclusively the world and the self can be understood, as the creature is understood in the creator, the finite in

Analytic philosophy

Current of thought developed mainly in England from the beginning of the 20th century, and aimed mainly at the study of language in its various aspects (scientific, daily, ethical, logical, etc.), favoring the analysis of specific problems over the elaboration of broad and comprehensive systems. From the school of G.E. Moore to the Tractatus of

Practical philosophy

This is a branch of philosophical sciences whose origins lay on the distinction theorized by Socrates and the Sophists and clarified in Plato, who generally divides science into πρακτική (referring to πρᾶξις, action), and γνωστική (referring to γνῶσις, knowledge), and more fully in Aristotle, who adds the poetic (ποιητική, referring to ποίησις, productive action) to

Jewish philosophy

We define as Jewish philosophy the philosophical ideas of those authors who lived in various geographical regions (in the Near and Middle East, in Europe and northern Africa) after the 1st century AD, who used different languages as a means of expression but who were united by two common characteristics: their Jewish ethnicity and their

Arabic philosophy

One can speak of Arabic philosophy with regard to historical phenomena that occurred in different cultural and religious spheres, which also differed according to the historical period and the geographical area in which they were located, but which are basically united by the use of the same language: Arabic. The term includes both the so-called


Philosophy can be defined as a form of knowledge that, despite the wide variety of its expressions, exhibits as almost constant characteristics two vocations: one towards universality and one towards the prescription of wisdom. The former manifests itself in two ways: philosophy is presented as the perfect form of knowledge, in any case as the

Chinese philosophy

Towards the end of the 19th century, the expression zhexue, borrowed from the Japanese language, was adopted in China to convey the term philosophy; an expression which literally means «knowledge to become a wise person» and which, in the Confucian perspective, should be understood as the wise man’s ability to deal with issues inherent to

Empiricism vs Sensationalism vs Materialism

A fundamental part of the History of Philosophy and Science, more amply of the History of Western culture, is certainly constituted by three philosophical currents especially developed between the 17th and 18th centuries in France and England: Sensationalism, Empiricism, and Materialism. At first, they were presented as theories of knowledge/understanding, therefore of esprit (the latter conceived in a


Materialism is the usually monistic philosophical conception according to which the only reality that can truly be said to exist is the matter and all that derives from its continuous transformation. This is to say that, fundamentally and substantially, all things have a material nature; that is, the foundation and substance of reality are material. See also: Empiricism vs Sensationalism


A hypothesis (plural hypotheses; from the ancient Greek ὑπόθεσις hypothesis, composed of hypo, “under” and thesis, “position”, or supposition) is the premise underlying reasoning or a demonstration; in other words is a suggested explanation for an event, which one can test. Originally, the meaning of the word indicated a mathematical method capable of simplifying the calculations, or a plausible