Practical philosophy

This is a branch of philosophical sciences whose origins lay on the distinction theorized by Socrates and the Sophists and clarified in Plato, who generally divides science into πρακτική (referring to πρᾶξις, action), and γνωστική (referring to γνῶσις, knowledge), and more fully in Aristotle, who adds the poetic (ποιητική, referring to ποίησις, productive action) to […]

Analytic philosophy

Current of thought developed mainly in England from the beginning of the 20th century, and aimed mainly at the study of language in its various aspects (scientific, daily, ethical, logical, etc.), favoring the analysis of specific problems over the elaboration of broad and comprehensive systems. From the school of G.E. Moore to the Tractatus of […]

Chinese philosophy

Towards the end of the 19th century, the expression zhexue, borrowed from the Japanese language, was adopted in China to convey the term philosophy; an expression which literally means «knowledge to become a wise person» and which, in the Confucian perspective, should be understood as the wise man’s ability to deal with issues inherent to […]

Jewish philosophy

We define as Jewish philosophy the philosophical ideas of those authors who lived in various geographical regions (in the Near and Middle East, in Europe and northern Africa) after the 1st century AD, who used different languages as a means of expression but who were united by two common characteristics: their Jewish ethnicity and their […]

Christian philosophy

Christian philosophy is also interwoven with religious and theological themes: it can’t indeed separate itself from the so-called “revealed truths,” and therefore from the faith, and it has its true subject in God, within whom exclusively the world and the self can be understood, as the creature is understood in the creator, the finite in […]

Arabic philosophy

One can speak of Arabic philosophy with regard to historical phenomena that occurred in different cultural and religious spheres, which also differed according to the historical period and the geographical area in which they were located, but which are basically united by the use of the same language: Arabic. The term includes both the so-called […]

Tibetan philosophy

Tibetan philosophy developed from the texts and assumptions of Indian Buddhism and almost exclusively in the Buddhist sphere, offering interesting solutions and developments to the Madhyamaka, Pramāṇavāda and, to a lesser extent, Yogācāra currents. Some key concepts used by contemporary interpreters of Indian and Buddhist philosophy, such as the distinction between a *svātantrika and a […]


Philosophy and science in positivism For A. Comte philosophy is, first of all, a reflection on knowledge and thus an analysis of the tendencies and techniques of the various sciences, classified according to an order of decreasing generality; not only that but at times some of their criteria are prescribed to be followed, as those […]

German idealism

Referring back to Kant, J.G. Fichte affirms the superiority of value over fact, of having to be over being: the practical foundation is placed at the basis of philosophizing, and human freedom, and therefore the “I” as the principle of philosophy, is a faith. For G.W.F. Hegel the point of view of the absolute, that […]

Age of Enlightenment

Locke’s lesson was a lesson in critical caution, and in this sense, his philosophy was interpreted by the Enlightenment. «After so much unfortunate wandering – wrote Voltaire – tired, exhausted and shameful of having sought so many truths and found so many chimeras, I returned, like the prodigal son to his father, to Locke; and […]

Modern philosophy

In Francis Bacon, we find, as in the whole Renaissance, the ideal of the regnum hominis, of the rational domination of nature, which is the purpose of knowledge and also of the practical organization of knowledge. Bacon offers an encyclopedia of the different forms of knowledge, an organic arrangement of the different sciences. We have […]


Materialism is the usually monistic philosophical conception according to which the only reality that can truly be said to exist is the matter and all that derives from its continuous transformation. This is to say that, fundamentally and substantially, all things have a material nature; that is, the foundation and substance of reality are material. See also: Empiricism vs Sensationalism […]


A hypothesis (plural hypotheses; from the ancient Greek ὑπόθεσις hypothesis, composed of hypo, “under” and thesis, “position”, or supposition) is the premise underlying reasoning or a demonstration; in other words is a suggested explanation for an event, which one can test. Originally, the meaning of the word indicated a mathematical method capable of simplifying the calculations, or a plausible […]


The term abstraction derives from the Latin abstractio which in turn takes up the Greek one of “αφαίρεσις” (aphàiresis). Conceptual abstractions may be formed by filtering the information content of a concept or an observable phenomenon (removing characteristics from something in order to reduce it to a set of essential characteristics), selecting only the aspects which are […]


Absolute means not limited by exceptions or conditions. What does not depend on another for its existence, therefore opposed to “conditioned,” “dependent,” and does not exclude the relationship for which another would depend on it. The term is used in many different ways in mathematics, physics, philosophy, and everyday speech. Absolute space and time, which, in […]

Quantitative reasoning

Quantitative reasoning (QR) is defined as the habit of mind to apply data and quantitative tools to a wide range of problems in personal, professional, and public contexts. The ability to think quantitatively clearly plays a central role in undergraduate education. By one definition, quantitative reasoning (QR) is the application of basic mathematics skills, such […]

Inductive reasoning

Inductive reasoning (as opposed to deductive reasoning or abductive reasoning) is a method of reasoning in which the premises are viewed as supplying some evidence for the truth of the conclusion; is a form of logical thinking that uses related observations to arrive at a general conclusion. Induction can be strong or weak. If an inductive […]

Deductive reasoning

Deductive reasoning or deduction is the process of thinking from one or more statements (premises) to reach a logically certain conclusion (the type of logic used in hypothesis-based science); is a form of logical thinking that uses a general principle or law to forecast specific results. In science, deduction is used to reach conclusions believed to be true. A hypothesis […]

Abductive reasoning

Abductive reasoning is a form of logical inference typically begins with an observation or an incomplete set of observations then seeks to find the simplest and most likely explanation. This process, unlike deductive reasoning, yields a plausible conclusion but does not positively verify it. Abductive conclusions are thus qualified as having a remnant of uncertainty or […]


The reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, judgments, applying logic, and adapting or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information. It is closely associated with such characteristically human activities as philosophy, science, language, mathematics, and art, and is normally considered to be a distinguishing ability possessed by humans. The reasoning is a […]


Empiricism (from Latin empiricus, der. from the Greek ἐμπειρία, empeirìa, ‘experience’), is the philosophical movement, born in the second half of the seventeenth century in England, according to which human knowledge derives exclusively from the senses or from experience. See also: Empiricism vs Sensationalism vs Materialism It opposes ‘innatism’ and ‘rationalism’, which derive knowledge by deduction from rational principles evident a priori, […]


Philosophy can be defined as a form of knowledge that, despite the wide variety of its expressions, exhibits as almost constant characteristics two vocations: one towards universality and one towards the prescription of wisdom. The former manifests itself in two ways: philosophy is presented as the perfect form of knowledge, in any case as the […]

Empiricism vs Sensationalism vs Materialism

A fundamental part of the History of Philosophy and Science, more amply of the History of Western culture, is certainly constituted by three philosophical currents especially developed between the 17th and 18th centuries in France and England: Sensationalism, Empiricism, and Materialism. At first, they were presented as theories of knowledge/understanding, therefore of esprit (the latter conceived in a […]