Medicine is the science that studies the diseases of the human body in order to guarantee people’s health, in particular establishing the diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of disease, as well as different ways of alleviating the suffering of the sick (even those who cannot more heal).
Medicine is divided into internal medicine and preventive medicine.
Internal medicine is the medical science in the strict sense, which includes the study of diseases whose therapeutic treatment is mainly or only medicinal, as opposed to surgery. Preventive medicine, however, is the set of rules of hygiene and preventive measures aimed at preventing disease.
As regards animals and their diseases we speak of veterinary medicine, and of comparative medicine for the comparative study of diseases in different animal species.
Internal medicine or general internal medicine (in Commonwealth nations) is the medical specialty dealing with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of internal diseases.
Preventive medicine or preventive healthcare (or prophylaxis), consists of measures taken for disease prevention. Disease and disability are affected by environmental factors, genetic predisposition, disease agents, and lifestyle choices and are dynamic processes which begin before individuals realize they are affected. Disease prevention relies on anticipatory actions that can be categorized as primal, primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention.
Veterinary medicine (from the Latin veterinarius, “vehicle” referring to the horse, the animal for which this profession was born) is a branch of the medical sciences that deals with the health and well-being of animals (prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease, disorder and injury), their breeding and derived products, both material (milk, meat, eggs …) and immaterial (such as pet therapy).
Comparative Medicine is a distinct discipline of experimental medicine that uses animal models of human and animal disease in translational and biomedical research.