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Electrical conductance

The electrical conductance of a component in an electric circuit is a property of a component that describes how the electric current in the component is related to the electrical potential difference (voltage) across it. The greater the electrical conductance, the larger the current for a given potential difference, and the smaller the potential difference,

Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT)

A linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) is one of the most popular electromechanical devices used to convert small mechanical displacements (mechanical vibrations or mechanical motion of the order of a few millimeters or fractions of a millimeter) into amplified electrical signals (variable electrical current, voltage or electrical signals, and vice versa). LVDTs are linear position sensors. Drive

Kinematic pair

A kinematic pair is a connection between two physical objects that imposes constraints on their relative movement. In other words: two links or elements of a machine, when in contact with each other, are said to form a pair; if the relative motion between them is completely or successfully constrained (i.e. in a definite direction), the pair

Measurement error

The error of measurement is the difference between a measured value of a quantity and its true value. The term measurement uncertainty is often used as a synonym for measurement error. In metrology, the analysis of errors includes the study of uncertainties in the measurements, since no measure as far as it is carried out with care

Measuring instrument

A device used for the measurement of a certain physical quantity is called a measuring instrument. The instruments indicate the value of these quantities, based on which we get some understanding and also take appropriate actions and decisions. Types of measurement instruments There are two main types of measuring instruments: analog and digital. The analog instruments indicate the magnitude of


The measurand is defined as a physical quantity to be measured (such as length, weight, and angle). The specification of a measurand requires: the knowledge of the species of physical quantity; the description of the state of the phenomenon, of the body or of the substance of which the physical quantity constitutes a property (including all the

Fidelity [metrology]

In Metrology, fidelity is defined as the degree to which a measurement instrument indicates changes in the measurand quantity without dynamic error. In metrology, it is said that a measuring instrument is all the more “faithful” the more it provides indications of little discordant value between them in the course of several measurements of a constant physical quantity.


A lubricant is an organic or synthetic substance (it can occur in any physical state: liquid, solid, gaseous and even semi-solid or viscous) which has the property of reducing the friction between surfaces in contact under any operating condition, dissipating the heat generated during the relative movement between the surfaces, maintaining its chemical stability, protecting the mechanical parts from corrosive attacks, cushioning possible shocks,


In Metrology the term measurement is closely associated with all the activities about scientific, industrial, commercial, and human aspects. It is defined as the assignment of a number to a characteristic of an object or event, which can be compared with other objects or events. The knowledge of the reality that surrounds us is based on the


The pous (plural podes; from Greek: ποῦς, poûs) or Greek foot (plural feet) was a Greek unit of length.