Neuron

Neurons are the cells considered to be the basis of nervous tissue. They are responsible for the electrical signals that communicate information about sensations, and that produce movements in response to those stimuli, along with inducing thought processes within the brain. An important part of the function of neurons is in their structure, or shape. The three-dimensional shape of these cells makes the immense numbers of connections within the nervous system possible.

Types of neurons

There are many neurons in the nervous system—a number in the trillions. And there are many different types of neurons. They can be classified by many different criteria. The first way to classify them is by the number of processes attached to the cell body. Using the standard model of neurons, one of these processes is the axon, and the rest are dendrites. Because information flows through the neuron from dendrites or cell bodies toward the axon, these names are based on the neuron’s polarity.

Unipolar neurons

Unipolar cells have only one process emerging from the cell. True unipolar cells are only found in invertebrate animals, so the unipolar cells in humans are more appropriately called “pseudo-unipolar” cells. Invertebrate unipolar cells do not have dendrites. Human unipolar cells have an axon that emerges from the cell body, but it splits so that the axon can extend along a very long distance. At one end of the axon are dendrites, and at the other end, the axon forms synaptic connections with a target. Unipolar cells are exclusively sensory neurons and have two unique characteristics. First, their dendrites are receiving sensory information, sometimes directly from the stimulus itself. Secondly, the cell bodies of unipolar neurons are always found in ganglia. Sensory reception is a peripheral function (those dendrites are in the periphery, perhaps in the skin) so the cell body is in the periphery, though closer to the CNS in a ganglion. The axon projects from the dendrite endings, past the cell body in a ganglion, and into the central nervous system.

Bipolar neurons

Bipolar cells have two processes, which extend from each end of the cell body, opposite to each other. One is the axon and one the dendrite. Bipolar cells are not very common. They are found mainly in the olfactory epithelium (where smell stimuli are sensed), and as part of the retina.

Multipolar neurons

Multipolar neurons are all of the neurons that are not unipolar or bipolar. They have one axon and two or more dendrites (usually many more). With the exception of the unipolar sensory ganglion cells, and the two specific bipolar cells mentioned above, all other neurons are multipolar. Some cutting edge research suggests that certain neurons in the CNS do not conform to the standard model of “one, and only one” axon. Some sources describe a fourth type of neuron, called an anaxonic neuron. The name suggests that it has no axon (an- = “without”), but this is not accurate. Anaxonic neurons are very small, and if you look through a microscope at the standard resolution used in histology (approximately 400X to 1000X total magnification), you will not be able to distinguish any process specifically as an axon or a dendrite. Any of those processes can function as an axon depending on the conditions at any given time. Nevertheless, even if they cannot be easily seen, and one specific process is definitively the axon, these neurons have multiple processes and are therefore multipolar.

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