Microbial dark matter

Microbial dark matter is that pervasive yet practically invisible infrastructure of life on the planet, which can have profound influences on the most significant environmental processes from plant growth and health, to nutrient cycles in terrestrial and marine environments, the global carbon cycle, and possibly even climate processes. Microbial dark matter comprises the vast majority of […]

Panda ant (Euspinolia Militaris)

The Euspinolia Militaris (also called panda ant – first described in 1938 in Chile) is a member of the Mutillidae family, part of the Hymenoptera order, which includes such as wasps, bees and ants. Kingdom Animalia Phylum Arthropoda Class Insecta Order Hymenoptera Suborder Apocrita Superfamily Vespoidea Family Mutillidae Genus Euspinolia Anatomy While the coloration of the panda ant is […]


Homeostasis is the activity of cells throughout the body to maintain the physiological state within a narrow range that is compatible with life. Homeostasis is regulated by negative feedback loops and, much less frequently, by positive feedback loops. Both have the same components of a stimulus, sensor, control center, and effector; however, negative feedback loops work […]

Giant panda

The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca; Chinese: 大熊猫; pinyin: dàxióngmāo), also known as the panda bear or simply the panda, is a bear native to south central China.

Muscle tissue

Muscle tissue is excitable, responding to stimulation and contracting to provide movement, and occurs as three major types: skeletal (voluntary) muscle, smooth muscle, and cardiac muscle in the heart.

Sexual dimorphism

Sexual dimorphism is the condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs. The condition occurs in many animals and some plants.


Hormones are chemical-signaling molecules, usually small proteins or steroids, secreted by endocrine cells that act to control or regulate specific physiological processes, including growth, development, metabolism, and reproduction. For example, insulin is a protein hormone that helps regulate the blood glucose level.


The biosphere, also known as the ecosphere, is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems. Ecosphere is a planetary closed ecological system. In this global ecosystem, the various forms of energy and matter that constitute a given planet interact on a continual basis.


A wasp is any insect of the order Hymenoptera and suborder Apocrita that is neither a bee nor an ant. The Apocrita have a common evolutionary ancestor and form a clade; wasps as a group do not form a clade but are paraphyletic concerning bees and ants.


Glycogen is the storage form of glucose in humans and other vertebrates and is comprised of monomers of glucose. Glycogen is the animal equivalent of starch and is a highly branched molecule usually stored in liver and muscle cells. Whenever blood glucose levels decrease, glycogen breaks down to release glucose in a process scientists call glycogenolysis.


A toxin (term derived from the word toxic, first used by organic chemist Ludwig Brieger) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms (animals, plants or microbial organisms) that is harmful to some species. A biotoxin is a poison produced by the metabolic activity of certain living beings, such as bacteria. Toxins produced by fungi are called […]


Lipids include a diverse group of compounds that are largely nonpolar in nature. This is because they are hydrocarbons that include mostly nonpolar carbon–carbon or carbon–hydrogen bonds. Non-polar molecules are hydrophobic (“water fearing”), or insoluble in water. Lipids perform many different functions in a cell. Cells store energy for long-term use in the form of fats. […]


Enzymes, which living cells produce, are catalysts in biochemical reactions (like digestion) and are usually complex or conjugated proteins. Each enzyme is specific for the substrate (a reactant that binds to an enzyme) upon which it acts. The enzyme may help in breakdown, rearrangement, or synthesis reactions. We call enzymes that break down their substrates […]


Hymenoptera, Apocrita insect family; cosmopolitan. Pompilidae are commonly called spider wasps, spider-hunting wasps, or pompilid wasps. Up to 7 cm long, they have an enlarged head, large eyes, long antennae, an elongated abdomen, and reduced or missing wings; the females have a sting connected with poisonous glands, with which they paralyze spiders, on which they lay their eggs.

Nervous tissue (neural tissue)

Nervous tissue allow the propagation of electrochemical signals in the form of nerve impulses that communicate between different regions of the body.

Predation (predator)

Predation is a biological interaction where one organism, the predator, kills and eats another organism, its prey.


A parasitoid is an organism that lives in close association with its host, at the host’s expense and results in the death of the host. Parasitoids can be classified as either endo- or ectoparasitoids with idiobiont or koinobiont developmental strategies. Endoparasitoids live within their host’s body, while ectoparasitoids feed on the host from outside.

ABC protein

The ABC proteins constitute the largest family of proteins. They are present in all living species from Archaea to Homo sapiens. They make up to 4% of the full genome complement of bacteria such as Escherichia coli or Bacillus subtilis. Each eukaryote genome contains several dozens of members (over 100 in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana). […]

ATP-binding cassette transporter

The ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters) are a transport system superfamily that is one of the largest and possibly one of the oldest gene families. It is represented in all extant phyla, from prokaryotes to humans. Most, but not all, ABC proteins are ABC transporters.


An exoskeleton is an external skeleton that supports and protects an animal’s body, in contrast to the internal skeleton (endoskeleton) of, for example, a human.


Pompiloidea is a superfamily that includes at least five families in the order Hymenoptera; cosmopolitan. Mutillidae (velvet ants) Myrmosidae (myrmosid wasps) Pompilidae (spider wasps) Sapygidae (sapygid wasps) Burmusculidae (extinct) Kingdom Animalia Phylum Arthropoda Subphylum Hexapoda Class Insecta Order Hymenoptera Superfamily Pompiloidea


Unlike the phospholipids and fats, steroids have a fused ring structure. Although they do not resemble the other lipids, scientists group them with them because they are also hydrophobic and insoluble in water. All steroids have four linked carbon rings and several of them, like cholesterol, have a short tail. Many steroids also have the –OH functional […]


Pollen is a fine to coarse powdery substance comprising pollen grains which are male microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells).


Nectar is a sugar-rich liquid produced by plants in glands called nectaries or nectarines, either within the flowers with which it attracts pollinating animals, or by extrafloral nectaries, which provide a nutrient source to animal mutualists, which in turn provide antiherbivore protection.


A larva (plural larvae) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults. Animals with indirect development such as insects, amphibians, or cnidarians typically have a larval phase of their life cycle.


Metamorphosis is a biological process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a conspicuous and relatively abrupt change in the animal’s body structure through cell growth and differentiation.

Connective tissue (CT)

Connective tissue, as its name implies, binds the cells and organs of the body together and functions in the protection, support, and integration of all parts of the body. Connective tissue membranes The connective tissue membrane is formed solely from connective tissue. These membranes encapsulate organs, such as the kidneys, and line our movable joints. A synovial membrane is […]


Cellulose is the most abundant natural biopolymer. Cellulose mostly comprises a plant’s cell wall. This provides the cell structural support. Wood and paper are mostly cellulosic in nature.In cellulose, glucose monomers are linked in unbranched chains by β 1-4 glycosidic linkages. Because of the way the glucose subunits are joined, every glucose monomer is flipped relative to the […]


A phospholipid is an amphipathic molecule, meaning it has a hydrophobic and a hydrophilic part. Phospholipids are major plasma membrane constituents that comprise cells’ outermost layer. Like fats, they are comprised of fatty acid chains attached to a glycerol or sphingosine backbone. However, instead of three fatty acids attached as in triglycerides, there are two fatty acids forming […]


Bacteria (singular bacterium) are a type of biological cell. Each bacterium is a single cell. They constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. The cell structure is simpler than that of other organisms as there is no nucleus or membrane-bound organelles. Instead, their control center containing the genetic information is contained in a single loop of DNA. […]

Epithelium (epithelial tissue)

Epithelial tissue also referred to as epithelium, refers to the sheets of cells that cover exterior surfaces of the body, line internal cavities, and passageways, and form certain glands. Epithelial Membranes The epithelial membrane is composed of epithelium attached to a layer of connective tissue, for example, your skin. The mucous membrane is also a composite of connective and epithelial tissues. […]


The term tissue is used to describe a group of cells found together in the body. The cells within a tissue share a common embryonic origin. Microscopic observation reveals that the cells in a tissue share morphological features and are arranged in an orderly pattern that achieves the tissue’s functions. From the evolutionary perspective, tissues appear in […]

Amino acid

Amino acids are the monomers that comprise proteins. Each amino acid has the same fundamental structure, which consists of a central carbon atom, or the alpha (\(\alpha\)) carbon, bonded to an amino group (NH2), a carboxyl group (COOH), and to a hydrogen atom. Every amino acid also has another atom or group of atoms bonded to […]


An organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that embodies the properties of life.


Anatomy (from Greek anatomē, ’dissection’) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts (the study of form in animals, plants, and other organisms, or specifically in humans). Simply, the study of the internal structure of living organisms. Generally, anatomy is divided into: Gross anatomy (related to the structure […]


Physiology is a sub-discipline of biology focused on how organisms, organ systems, individual organs, cells, and biomolecules carry out the chemical and physical functions and mechanisms in a living system.


An organ is a group of tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that coexist in organ systems. Organ system An organ system is a group of organs that work together as a biological system to perform one or more functions. Each organ does a particular job in the body and […]


The stomach is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.


The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.


The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.


Ecdysozoa (/ˌɛkdɪsoʊˈzoʊə/) is a group of protostome animals, including Arthropoda (insects, chelicerata, crustaceans, and myriapods), Nematoda, and several smaller phyla.


The mutillidae are a family of apocrita hymenopterous insects, including about 7000 species; cosmopolitan, especially in the hot climate regions of Australia and South America. Kingdom Animalia Phylum Arthropoda Class Insecta Order Hymenoptera Suborder Apocrita Superfamily Pompiloidea Family Mutillidae Modest in size, their common name velvet ant refers to their dense pile of hair, which most often is bright […]

Animal (kingdom Animalia)

Animals are any of the species of organisms that are assigned to the taxonomic Kingdom Animalia, which contains groups broadly categorized as invertebrates and vertebrates. The latter contains the familiar types such as mammals, amphibians, birds, fish, and reptiles. The former, however, consists of those with or without an exoskeleton like the insects, crustaceans, jellyfish, worms, etc. […]


The Vespoidea are a superfamily of wasps in the order Hymenoptera, although older taxonomic schemes may vary in this categorization, particularly in their recognition of a now-obsolete superfamily Scolioidea, as well as the relationship to ants. The Vespoidea contains well-known insects such as the social wasps and ants as well as less well-known insects such as solitary wasps, […]


Ants are the most numerous type of animal on Earth; their combined weight is greater than the combined weight of human kind. Ants show maximum diversity in tropical climate zones such as South America, Africa, and eastern Australia but exist many species also in temperate regions of the planet. Ants, like many other Hymenoptera, are eusocial […]


Trilobites are a group of formerly numerous marine animals that disappeared in the Permian–Triassic extinction event, though they were in decline prior to this killing blow, having been reduced to one order in the Late Devonian extinction.


Chelicerates include horseshoe crabs, spiders, mites, scorpions and related organisms. They are characterised by the presence of chelicerae, appendages just above / in front of the mouth. Chelicerae appear in scorpions and horseshoe crabs as tiny claws that they use in feeding, but those of spiders have developed as fangs that inject venom.


Myriapods comprise millipedes, centipedes, and their relatives and have many body segments, each segment bearing one or two pairs of legs (or in a few cases being legless). They are sometimes grouped with the hexapods.


Crustaceans are primarily aquatic (a notable exception being woodlice) and are characterised by having biramous appendages. They include lobsters, crabs, barnacles, crayfish, shrimp and many others.


Hexapods comprise insects and three small orders of insect-like animals with six thoracic legs. They are sometimes grouped with the myriapods, in a group called Uniramia, though genetic evidence tends to support a closer relationship between hexapods and crustaceans.


Tactopoda is a proposed clade of protostome animals that includes the phyla Tardigrada and Euarthropoda, supported by various morphological observations.


Biology (from the Ancient Greek words of βίος; romanized bíos meaning “life“ and -λογία; romanized logía (-logy) meaning “branch of study“ or “to speak“) is the study of life, that is, the physical and chemical processes of the phenomena that characterize living systems, including their biochemistry, molecular mechanisms, genetics, anatomy, physiology, as well as emerging processes […]


Astrobiology is the study of origin, early-evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe. Also known as exobiology, and bioastronomy.


Biochemistry is the study of the chemical reactions required for life to exist and function, usually a focus on the cellular level.

Comparative anatomy

Comparative anatomy is the study of the evolution of species through similarities and differences in their anatomy.


Biogeography is the science that studies the distribution in space and time of living organisms and the causes that determine it. In fact, organisms and biological communities often vary on a regular basis following geographical gradients such as latitude, altitude, isolation and habitat. This science deals with investigating the extension, development, rotation over time, and overlapping […]

Neuroscience (neurobiology)

Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the study of the nervous system, including anatomy, physiology and emergent proprieties. Cellular neuroscience – study of neurons at a cellular level. Cognitive neuroscience – study of biological substrates underlying cognition, with a focus on the neural substrates of mental processes. Computational neuroscience – study of the information processing functions of the nervous system, and the […]


Biologists may study anything from the microscopic or submicroscopic view of a cell to ecosystems and the whole living planet. The term “biologist“ is used to group scientists specialized mainly in three areas: Botany, which studies plants; Zoology, which studies the animal kingdom; and Microbiology, which studies microbes and unicellular organisms. Some other subcategories of Biology […]


Botany (from the Greek: βοτάνη [botane] = plant), also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the discipline of biology that studies the forms of life in the plant world (flora), especially in relation to their anatomy, physiology, utility, classification, and ecology. The most complex organisms studied by botany constitute the kingdom of plants (or […]


Biotechnology (from the Greek βίος, bìos = “life“, τέχνη, téchne = “art“, in the sense of “expertise“, “knowing how to do“, “knowing how to operate“, and λόγος, lògos = “study“) is a new and sometimes controversial branch of biology concerning ’the use of living beings in order to obtain goods or useful services to satisfy the needs […]


Chronobiology, from the Greek χρόνος chrónos ’time’ and from biology (’study of life’), is a branch of biology that studies the periodic (cyclical) phenomena in living organisms and their adaptation to the relative solar and lunar rhythms. These cycles are known as biological rhythms. Chronobiological studies find application in different disciplines such as comparative anatomy, […]


Ecology (from Greek: οἶκος, “house“, or “environment“; -λογία, “study of“) is a branch of biology that study the distribution and abundance of living organisms and how the distribution and abundance are affected by interactions between the organisms and their environment. The environment of an organism includes both physical properties, which can be described as the sum of local […]


Zoology (from the Greek: zoon = animal; logos = discourse) is the biological discipline that deals with the study of animals (or metazoans) and protozoa, including classification, physiology, development, and behavior. The latter, although not real animals, due to biological similarities and phylogenetic affinity, in the past were considered effective members of the animal kingdom and […]


In biochemistry, metabolism is the set of chemical transformations that are dedicated to maintaining life within the cells of living organisms. These enzyme-catalyzed reactions allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures and respond to the stresses of the surrounding environment. The word “metabolism“ can also refer to all those chemical reactions that take place in […]


Immunology is a branch of biology that deals with the immune system, studying the aspects of defenses against infections and the adverse consequences of immune responses.


Bacillus species are rod-shaped, endospore-forming aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, Gram-positive bacteria; in some species cultures may turn Gram-negative with age. The many species of the genus exhibit a wide range of physiologic abilities that allow them to live in every natural environment. Only one endospore is formed per cell. The spores are resistant to heat, cold, […]


Anthrax is caused by Bacillus anthracis. Humans acquire the disease directly from contact with infected herbivores or indirectly via their products. The clinical forms include: cutaneous anthrax (eschar with edema), from handling infected material (this accounts for more than 95 percent of cases); intestinal anthrax, from eating infected meat; pulmonary anthrax, from inhaling spore-laden dust. Several other Bacillus spp, in […]

Bacillus cereus

Bacillus cereus causes two distinct food poisoning syndromes: a rapid-onset emetic syndrome characterized by nausea and vomiting, and a slower-onset diarrheal syndrome.


Bacteriology is the branch of biology that studies morphology, ecology, genetics, and biochemistry of bacteria as well as many other aspects related to them (medicine, industry, and agriculture). Bacteria were discovered in 1676 by Anton von Leeuwenhoek. Modern techniques of study originate from about 1870 with the use of stains and the discovery of culture methods […]


A bacteriophage (derived from “bacteria“ and the Greek φαγεῖν (phagein), meaning “to devour,“ informally known as a phage) is a virus that infects and replicates within bacteria and archaea. The infection may or may not lead to the death of the bacterium, depending on the phage and sometimes on conditions. Each bacteriophage is specific to one form of the bacterium. Bacteriophages make up […]

Microbial mat

Microbial mats are horizontally stratified microbial communities, exhibiting a structure defined by physiochemical gradients, which models microbial diversity, physiological activities, and their dynamics as a whole system. These ecosystems are commonly associated with aquatic habitats, including hot springs, hypersaline ponds, and intertidal coastal zones and oligotrophic environments, all of them harbor phototrophic mats and other environments such […]

Ultramicrobacteria (dwarf bacteria)

Ultramicrobacteria (also known as dwarf bacteria) are bacteria that are smaller than 0.1 μm3 under all growth conditions. They have shrunk to less than a thousandth of their normal volume because they have used up virtually all their internal reserves. These emaciated microbes are commonly found at great depths under the Earth’s surface (see endoliths) where nutrients are scarce. In […]


Auxin is any of a group of hormones that regulates plant growth with some morphogen-like characteristics. The Dutch biologist Frits Warmolt Went first described auxins and their role in plant growth in the 1920s. Auxins especially stimulate cell elongation in stems and inhibition in roots. They also control abscission and the plant’s responses to light (see phototropism) and gravity […]


An endolith is an organism (archaeon, bacterium, fungus, lichen, alga, or amoeba) that lives inside rocks, corals, animal shells, or in the pores between mineral grains of a rock. Endoliths have been found inhabiting the Earth’s crust at depths up to nearly 3 kilometers. The extreme depth at which endoliths can exist has yet to be established. […]


The species is at the basis of the classification of living organisms, being the hierarchically lower mandatory taxonomic level. Four end products are found and talked about comparative with different species ideas:  All creatures, over a wide span of time, have a place with some developmental species.  Regenerative segregation must be sufficiently compelling to allow […]


The Apocrita are a suborder of Hymenoptera insects, which includes the infraorder aculeata, that is the great majority of the Hymenoptera. The terebrantia, or parasitica, is considered a second infra-order of apocrites; they are a paraphyletic group, therefore invalid. Anatomy description Thoracic-abdominal region The distinctive features of Apocrita reside in the morphological structure of the regions of the […]


Hymenoptera (from Ancient Greek ὑμήν: membrane and πτερόν: wing) is a large order (over 150,000 species recognized) of highly specialized insects with the complete metamorphosis that include the bees, wasps, ants, ichneumon flies, sawflies, gall wasps, and related forms, often associate in large colonies with complex social organization. Anatomy Head The head is generally hypognathous, but […]


Proteins are one of the most abundant organic molecules in living systems and have the most diverse range of functions of all macromolecules. Proteins may be structural, regulatory, contractile, or protective. They may serve in transport, storage, or membranes; or they may be toxins or enzymes. Each cell in a living system may contain thousands of proteins, each with […]


Arthropods are any of the invertebrates animals having an exoskeleton (made of cuticle, a non-cellular material secreted by the epidermis), a segmented body, and paired jointed limbs. The cuticle is made of chitin (a polymer of glucosamine), often mineralized with calcium carbonate. Some species have wings. The word arthropod comes from the Greek ἄρθρον árthron, “joint”, […]

Honey bee

Honey bees are mostly grouped in a genus Apis. However within the family ‘Apinae’ are stingless bees, part of the Meliponini tribe. These bees are different from honey bees producing less abundant but more liquid-based honey. This type of honey, produced by stingless honey bees, is traditionally used more for medicinal purposes. Classification of honey […]

Bee (Anthophila)

A bee is a member of any of the 20,000 species of insects belonging to the superfamily Apoidea in the order Hymenoptera. Kingdom Animalia Phylum Arthropoda Class Insecta Order Hymenoptera Suborder Apocrita Superfamily Apoidea Clade Anthophila The bee, emblem of industriousness, has been a symbolic insect in myths, legends, and religions since ancient times, certainly known since […]


A cell is the smallest independently functioning unit of a living organism. Even bacteria, which are extremely small, independently-living organisms, have a cellular structure. All living structures of human anatomy contain cells, and almost all functions of human physiology are performed in cells or are initiated by cells. Thus, cells are the basic building blocks of all […]

Insect (insecta)

Insects (or Insecta in scientific Latin; from the word insectum “cut, divided”) belong to the Class of the Arthropoda Phylum, which, after the systematic revisions from the last decades of the 20th century, was included in the Hexapoda Superclass, they are considered as the largest group in the animal kingdom on Earth: the species described are over a million and their […]


The superfamily Apoidea (Pierre André Latreille, 1802) is a major group within the Hymenoptera, which includes about 20,000 species, the best known of which is the honeybee (Apis mellifera). The morphology of the Apoidea reflects their specialization in pollinating insects: the body is more or less covered with hair, the mouthparts are adapted to the collection of […]